Review for Strand 3 Test: Internal Systems and Regulation (Circulatory)
  1. _____ Single celled organisms rely on diffusion to transport nutrients
  2. _____ There are 3 major components to most circulatory systems: blood, vessels, heart
  3. _____ Blood travels in this order: arteries --> capillaries --> veins --> venules
  4. _____ Blood is composed of plasma and water
  5. _____ Blood cells are created in the heart
  6. _____ Platelets are involved in clotting of blood
  7. _____ Fibrinogen is released from platelets
  8. _____ A blood clot is actually formed from insoluble strands of fibrin
  9. _____ There is approximately 3 litres of blood in the human body
  10. _____ RBC's are also known as leukocytes
  11. _____ RBC's have hemoglobin which can carry oxygen or carbon dioxide
  12. _____ Albumins in blood help maintain blood pressure
  13. _____ RBC's live about 120 days
  14. _____ Unlike RBC's, WBC's do not have a nucleus
  15. _____ During an infection, the # of WBC's in the body increases
  16. _____ Antibodies are produced by monocytes
  17. _____ Phagocytosis is performed by leukocytes
  18. _____ "Sickle cell anemia" is caused by WBC's that have become sickle-shaped
  19. _____ "African sleeping sickness" is caused by infection with Paramecia passed on by the Tse Tse fly
  20. _____ Arteries carry oxygenated blood towards the heart and are coloured red
  21. _____ Arteries are more circular than veins since they have a thick muscle layer
  22. _____ Veins lack a tunica media
  23. _____ The tunica intima is closest to the lumen of a blood vessel
  24. _____ Capillaries are only 1 cell thick and are composed only of tunica externa
  25. _____ Most nutrients reach needy cells by diffusing across the thin walls of arterioles
  26. _____ Blood leaving capillaries enters venules to return to the heart
  27. _____ Venules lead directly into arterioles
  28. _____ All veins carry deoxygenated blood
  29. _____ Veins have valves (and surrounding skeletal muscle) to ensure blood returns to the heart
  30. _____ An aneurism is a deposit of plaque inside a vessel that blocks the flow of blood
  31. _____ The carotid artery carries blood to the legs
  32. _____ The aorta carries blood from the left ventricle to the rest of the body
  33. _____ The renal vein carries blood into the liver
  34. _____ The superior vena cava carries deoxygenated blood from the upper body to the heart
  35. _____ The heart lies in a fluid-filled sac called the thorax
  36. _____ The septum separates the atria from the ventricles
  37. _____ The bicuspid valve is an A-V valve on the left side of the heart
  38. _____ Chordae tendinae reinforce the semilunar valves
  39. _____ The right ventricle holds deoxygenated blood
  40. _____ Pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs into the right atrium
  41. _____ Both atria contract at the same time and then both ventricles contract
  42. _____ Coronary arteries supply the lungs with blood
  43. _____ The systemic circulatory system includes the heart and lungs
  44. _____ Blood pressure is measured using a sphygmomanometer
  45. _____ Normal adult blood pressure is about 120/80 (mmHg)
  46. _____ In a BP reading, the 120 stands for the systolic pressure caused by contraction of the atria
  47. _____ During exercise, BP and pulse increase
  48. _____ Increased BP and pulse during exercise provides nutrients quickly to cells
  49. _____ BP can be increased by dilation of blood vessels
  50. _____ Dilation of blood vessels could cause hypotension
  51. _____ Blood pressure is increased when there are many solutes in the blood
  52. _____ High BP is sensed by receptors in the carotid artery and aorta
  53. _____ Information about BP is carried by motor nerves up to the medulla in the brain
  54. _____ Low BP is sensed by receptors in the pulmonary veins
  55. _____ The heart can beat on its own without any nerves attached to it
  56. _____ The pacemaker is also called the A-V node
  57. _____ The pacemaker is located in the wall of the left atrium
  58. _____ Nervous impulses from the S-A node travel to the A-V node in the septum
  59. _____ Purkinje fibres carry nerve impulses down the septum towards the bundle of His
  60. _____ The vagus nerve slows down the heartbeat because it is an inhibitory sensory nerve
  61. _____ The cardiovascular control centre is located in the medulla in the brain
  62. _____ More nerve impulses on the accelerator nerve speeds up the heartbeat
  63. _____ Fewer nerve impulses on the vagus nerve speeds up the heartbeat
  64. _____ On an electrocardiogram, the "P" wave represents contraction of the atria
  65. _____ An "open circulatory system" means blood is sometimes exposed to the external environment
  66. _____ A fish has a "single" circulation
  67. _____ Fish heart has 2 chambers, amphibian heart has 3 chambers, mammalian heart has 4 chambers
  68. _____ Amphibians and mammals have a "double" circulation that is considered to be "closed"
  69. _____ A complete septum is found only in amphibians and mammals, not fish