Use the Nelson text, "Biology 11", pp. 210-212 to complete the blanks. Sentences in bold are not in the text.


The digestive tract of adult humans, normally ________ to _________ long, stores and breaks down organicm molecules into simpler components. ______________ digestion begins in the ____________, where food is _____________ and formed into a ___________ (ball) by the _____________.


Saliva, the ________________ fluids produced by the _________________ glands (3 pairs of glands: parotid, sublingual, submaxillary), contains ______________ enzymes which break down ______________ (complex _________________) to simpler carbohydrates. The release of saliva begins ______________ digestion. Saliva _________________ the food so it can be swallowed, _______________ food particles, and makes it possible to ________________ what is being eaten. To taste food, food particles dissolved in solution penetrate the cells of the _______________ ___________ located on the ______________ and _____________. Different types of ___________________ respond to different flavours. ________________ cells for taste are stimulated when _______________ sites are filled by chemical compounds with a complementary shape. (sketch Fig. 2 on pg. 211)


Teeth are important for _______________ digestion. Unlike carnivores which eat __________, herbivores lack ______________ which are used for ________________. Using the text pg. 211 and Fig. 3 on pg. 212, complete the table below:

Name of teeth
# (upper + lower)
Major Function
Sketch/label lower jaw






Once swallowed, food travels from the ________________ to the _______________ by way of the esophagus. The _____________ of food stretches the walls of the esophagus activating ______________ ________________ that set up waves of rhythmic contractions called __________________. Peristaltic contractions, which are ____________________, move food along (see Fig. 4, pg. 212). Peristaltic action will move food from the ____________________ down to the _______________ even if you stand on your head.