Use the Nelson text, "Biology 11", pp. 230-235 to complete the blanks. Bold / Italic sentences are not in the text.

Defining Food Energy

In your body, ________________ energy can be converted by muscle cells into _______________ energy. It can also be converted into electrical, heat, and other forms of energy.

In Canada, energy is measured in _____________ (J) or ________________ (kJ). In some countries, energy in food is measured in ______________. One calorie is equal to ___________ J.

Your lowest energy need is called your ___________ ________________ _____________ (BMR). This describes the amount of energy needed to keep you ____________, even in the most relaxed state. List the daily energy requirement per day for: a newborn: _________, teenage girl: ___________, teenage boy: ______________, office worker: _____________.

To maintain an energy balance, the energy in the food taken ______ should equal the energy ___________. The energy output is used for ___________, ________________, and normal __________________ reactions.

Individuals who receive fewer than ______________ kJ of energy per day are said to be _______________. But each person needs a slightly different amount of energy. _________________ is the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the body. A chemical messenger (hormone) from the _________________ gland regulates the rate at which energy in food is converted to other forms of energy. If thyroid hormones increase, _________________ increases. A portion of the energy from metabolism is converted to ____________ to warm the body. Some of the released energy is turned into the energy-storage compound, ________.

Essential Nutrients

In addition to providing energy, food must contain _________________ __________________ that cannot be made by the body. Of the ______ amino acids needed to produce ______________, _____ (#) cannot be synthesized and must be obtained in the diet. "Macronutrients" include carbohydrates, _____________________, and ________________ and are needed in large amounts every day. "Micronutrients" include vitamins and ________________ and are needed in smaller amounts every day.

Vitamins help the body change food into _________________. Vitamins can be classified as _______________ soluble, such as vitamin _____ and the ___-group vitamins, or _____ soluble, such as vitamin _____, D, E, and ______. _______________ soluble vitamins cannot be stored in the body and must be consumed every day because when not absorbed immediately they are excreted in the __________. Fat-soluble vitamins can be ______________ in the fatty tissues. If you take too many of these vitamins, they can build up and become harmful. For example, accumulating vitamin ____, which helps regulate ________________ and _______________ levels for teeth and bones, can cause __________________ deposits in the kidney and ______________ ____________ and slower _______________ in children.

Some vitamins can be produced by the body. For example, vitamin ______ can be produced by __________________ in our intestines. Ultraviolet light changes a chemical in the ____________ into vitamin _____.

Several ________________ are also needed in small amounts. Like vitamins, minerals help you obtain ____________ from food and maintain normal body functions.

Table of Vitamins and Minerals

Complete the blanks (1-4 = vitamins, 5-7 = minerals).

Vitamin or Mineral
Needed for
Deficiency symptoms
1. Vitamin A  
2.  healthy skin/hair, good vision, growth, reproduction 
3.   hemorrhaging
4. Vitamin C  
5. Iodine  
6.   lack of energy, anemia
7.  transport of oxygen