The endocrine system is composed of a number of _________________ glands (and some patches of cells) which produce and secrete ______________________ directly into the _________________. These hormones then travel to distant cells or glands (called "_______________" cells or glands) where they exert their effects.
- the ultimate purpose of hormones (like nervous impulses) is to maintain ____________________
- four major ________________ of hormones are recognized (the text refers to two categories: ________________ and _______________________
- not part of endocrine system
- glands that have _______________ (tubes) through which contents are emptied either out of the body (eg. ___________________ glands releasing milk, ____________________ glands releasing sweat) or into the digestive tract (eg. ____________________ glands, liver, pancreas, etc.)
- glands that do not have _______________
- contents (____________________) released from cells directly into the bloodstream
- examples: __________________ gland, ____________________ gland (see Fig. on pg. 615)
Four Major Classes of Hormones
- Modified Amino Acids
- adrenalin (_______________________), noradrenalin (________________________), thyroxin (____________________ hormone), etc.
- synthesized from single _____________ _________________
- insulin, ___________________, etc.
- synthesized from chains of _____________ _________________
- testosterone, ___________________, etc.
- synthesized from _______________________
- prostaglandin E1, E2, etc.
- synthesized from ____________ ___________________
Mode of Action of Hormones
- Steroids (Fig. 37.3, pg. 616)
- steroid hormones are ________________-soluble
- diffuse easily through cell membrane to combine with ___________________ in the cytoplasm or nucleus to produce a __________________-____________________ complex
- this then interacts with DNA and inceases steps of "__________________ synthesis" (called transcription and translation) leading to production of ________________________
- often the proteins produced are ____________________ or structural materials like __________________
- draw diagram in notes
Proteins/Peptides (Fig. 37.4, pg. 617)
- _____________________ are on the surface of the cell membrane since these hormones are not _____________-soluble so they can't pass through the membrane
- binding of the hormone to receptor activates an enzyme called _______________ __________________ which causes the production of many cAMP (________________ AMP) molecules
- cAMP is called a "____________________ _____________________" because it then activates inactive enzymes in the cytoplasm (the hormone is the "primary messenger")
- draw diagram in notes