Review for Strand 2A Test: Nervous System

Major Topics

- feedback cycles and reflexes
- neuron structure and function
- human senses microviewer
- nerve lab
- resting membrane potential
- graded potential
- action potential
- all or none law, refractory period
- propagation of action potentials (myelinated vs. non-myelinated neurons)
- synaptic transmission and pharmacology
- nervous system filmstrip
- sheep brain lab
- divisions of the nervous system (CNS vs PNS, autonomic nervous system)
- sympathetic/parasympathetic nervous system
- disorders of the nervous system

True-False Questions

1. _____ A stimulus is initially detected by receptors which then pass on the info. directly to motor neurons.

2. _____ Negative feedback diminishes the effects of a stimulus.

3. _____ Constricting major arteries is a reasonable way for the body to homeostatically reduce high blood pressure.

4. _____ The "input zone" of a neuron is generally the dendrites.

5. _____ The "output zone" of a neuron is generally the axon.

6. _____ The main function of the myelin sheath is to protect the axon.

7. _____ K+ and Cl- ions are in [high] inside the neuron; Na+ and A- are [high] outside.

8. _____ The steady influx of K+ ions into the neuron helps to set up resting potential.

9. _____ Graded potentials are decremental signals that can be summed temporally and spatially.

10. _____ During a GP, Na+ ions enter the neuron through leak channels.

11. _____ If enough Na+ ions enter to hyperpolarize the neuron, an AP will occur.

12. _____ The more Na+ entering a neuron, the longer and more intense the AP.

13. _____ The upstroke of the AP is a depolarization caused by Na+ influx; the downstroke of the AP is a repolarization caused by K+ influx.

14. _____ The Na+/K+ pump restores ion concentrations by moving 3 Na+ out of and 2 K+ into the neuron with each cycle.

15. _____ A nerve is a collection of many bundles of neurons and some blood vessels and associated tissues.

16. _____ The outer lining of a nerve is the epineurium and each bundle of neurons is surrounded by the endoneurium.

17. _____ Sensory nerves enter the spinal cord at the dorsal root; motor nerves enter at the ventral root.

18. _____ Saltatory conduction is propagation of the AP on myelinated neurons; it is faster than simple propagation on non-myelinated neurons.

19. _____ Nodes of Ranvier are spots on the axon where no myelin or pumps/channels are located.

20. _____ Neurotransmitters are stored in the post-synaptic neuron terminal.

21. _____ An influx of Ca++ ions is required for vesicles to fuse with the pre-synaptic neuron terminal.

22. _____ When NTs bind with pre-synaptic receptors, they open channels so that the NTs can enter the neuron and cause an AP.

23. _____ Influx of Na+ into post-synaptic neurons will lead to depolarization and possibly an AP; this happens at excitatory synapses.

24. _____ Entry of negative ions into post-synaptic neurons hyperpolarizes them making it easier for an AP to occur.

25. _____ Curare is a treatment for Neostigmine poisoning.

26. _____ Curare blocks acetylcholine which is the enzyme that normally breaks down acetylcholinesterase.

27. _____ Botulism causes muscles to undergo paralyzing contractions since it blocks the release of GABA, an excitatory neurotransmitter that acts on muscle.

28. _____ Cocaine blocks the re-uptake of norepinephrine into the pre-synaptic neuron.

29. _____ The CNS is composed of 2 parts: cerebrum and spinal cord.

30. _____ The brain is composed of 3 major lobes.

31. _____ The temporal lobe governs hearing.

32. _____ The cerebral hemispheres are neurally wired together by the medulla.

33. _____ Damage to the cerebellum would cause disturbance of balance and posture.

34. _____ Damage to the occipital lobe would cause disturbance of vision.

35. _____ This list gives nerves from most superior to most inferior in the body: cervical, lumbar, thoracic, sacral, coccygeal

36. _____ Dangerous viruses or bacteria found in cerebrospinal fluid could be a sign that a patient has meningitis.

37. _____ Heartbeat is regulated by the somatic nervous system; voluntary muscle movement is regulated by the autonomic nervous system.

38. _____ The sympathetic nervous system prepares an organisms for stressful activity; while the parasympathetic nervous system prepares for relaxation.

39. _____ The following are all actions of the sympathetic nervous system: constrict pupil; increase heart rate; glycogen conversion to glucose; dilate bronchi.

40. _____ Melatonin is a hormone involved in sleep-wake cycles released by the pineal gland.

41. _____ The pituitary gland controls the hypothalamus (the "mater gland") above it.

42. _____ In a reflex arc, the spinal cord acts as the initial integrating centre connecting sensory and motor neurons.

43. _____ Surface area of the brain is increased by gyri (convolutions) and sulci (fissures).

44. _____ A correct homeostatic response to high blood pressure would be to decrease heart rate and dilate blood vessels.

45. _____ The nervous system and the endocrine (hormone) system maintain homeostasis in the body.

46. _____ Pacinian corpuscles are receptors that respond to deep pressure.

47. _____ Rods and cones are found in the inner ear and respond to radiant energy.

48. _____ Hair cells are found in the organ of corti and respond to mechanical energy.

49. _____ Terminal branches occur at the beginning and end of a neuron.

50. _____ Synapses occur between 2 neurons or between a neuron and a muscle or gland.

51. _____ The myelin sheath insulates a neuron by preventing entry of Na+ during the AP .