THE MAMMALIAN HEART
(refer to Nelson text, pp. 256-258)

A fluid-filled membrane called the _______________________ surrounds the heart. The fluid bathes the heart, preventing ___________________ between its outer wall and the __________________.

The heart consists of two parallel ______________ separated by the __________________. The pumping action is _____________________ (occurs on both sides at the same time). The pump on the right receives _______________________ blood from the body ______________ and pumps it to the ______________. The pump on the left receives ___________________ blood from the ____________ and pumps it to the cells of the body. Vessels carrying blood to and from the lungs comprise the ____________________ circulatory system. Vessels that carry blood to and from the body comprise the ____________________ circulatory system.


ONE-WAY BLOOD FLOW (Fig. 1 and 2, pg. 256)

Blood is carried to the heart by ____________. The _________________ ___________ cava carries ____________________ blood from the head and upper body to the right _______________. The ___________________ ______________ cava carries __________________________ blood from all the veins below the __________________________ to the same atrium. Oxygenated blood flowing from the __________________ enters the left ______________ by way of the _______________________ veins. Blood from both _________________ is eventually pumped into the larger _______________________.

Valves called ___________________________ (____) valves separate the atria from the ventricles. AV valves prevent blood from flowing from the _____________________ back into the ________________. A second set of valves, called ______________________ valves, separate the ___________________ from the arteries. These valves are _________-____________ shaped and prevent blood that has entered the arteries from flowing back into the ________________________.

Blood is carried away from the heart by _________________. The ___________________, the largest artery in your body, carries _____________________ blood. The _______________________ arteries (a branch of the _______________) supply oxygen and _________________ to the heart itself. Chest pains, or ________________, can occur when these vessels are blocked and not enough _________________ gets to the heart muscles. ___________ deposits and ____________________ can collect inside coronary arteries reducing blood _______________. A coronary ________________ operation involves removing a _______________ from another part of the body and grafting it into position.


CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION (Fig. 3 and 4, pg. 258)

In this procedure, a thin __________________ tube called a __________________ is passed into a _________ vein. A dye visible on ____________ film is then injected. The dye travels through the _____________ _________________ and into the heart while its image is traced by a _______________________ or projected on a television monitor. A longer ________________ can even reach the ______________ so that dye can be injected into a coronary artery. An area of restricted ____________ flow pinpoints a region of blockage. In a techniqe known as ___________________, a catheter with a tiny ________________ attached can be used to scrape and collect debris from a ______________________.