HYPOTHALAMUS AND PITUITARY GLAND
(Nelson Biology 12, Chapter 6 and Fig. 6/pg. 376, Table 1/pg. 377)

The ___________________________ and the ________________________ gland (also called "hypophysis") are part of the ____________________ system and the _______________________ system. Together, they produce and control the release of many _____________________. Although the ______________________ is often considered the "master gland" it is really controlled by the ________________________ above it.

The pituitary gland has an ______________________ lobe and a ____________________ lobe and each produces/releases different hormones.

Clusters of neurosecretory cells (neuro-endocrine cells) in the _____________________ produce the 2 hormones _____________________ and ________________________ which move down axons to axon endings in the ___________________ lobe of the pituitary gland where they are stored. When the hypothalamus is stimulated, AP's travel down the axons and the hormones are released from the ___________________ pituitary into the bloodstream.

One hormone, __________________________ (_____), acts on the ____________________ (it's target organ) causing water to be conserved (reabsorbed). This has important effects on blood pressure, blood volume, etc.

The other hormone, ______________________, acts on smooth muscle of the __________________ glands causing milk to be released during lactation and on the _______________________ promoting childbirth.

The release of hormones produced by the _______________________ lobe of the pituitary are controlled by "__________________" and "___________________" hormones made in the hypothalamus. When the hypothalamus secretes releasing hormones into nearby capillaries, the hormones travel through vessels in the stalk (________________________) connecting the hypothalamus and pituitary. The hormones reach the pituitary and either stimulate or inhibit hormone release from the anterior lobe.

Hypothalamic Releasing HormoneAnterior Pituitary Hormone StimulatedOverall Actions of Pituitary Hormone
 

STH (GH) 
CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone)

  
 

TSH 
GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone)

  
PRLRH (prolactin releasing hormone)

  

Negative feedback is very common in hormonal pathways. When a stimulus causes the release of a hormone, the level of the hormone increases. As the hormonal effect kicks in, the release of the hormone is adjusted to match the requirement.