Names: _______________________________________

Molecular Models of Functional Groups

Working in a group of 2-3 students, use 1 molecular model kit to construct the models below and answer all questions (in italics) neatly on a separate sheet of paper(s). Submit 1 copy of your answers per group together with this sheet.

  1. Construct a water molecule.
      a) Is water a polar molecule?
      b) Why or why not?
      c) What specific type of bond occurs between an O and H in water?
      d) What specific type of bond occurs between separate water molecules?

  2. Construct a carbon dioxide molecule.
      a) How many bonds link each oxygen atom to the carbon atom?
      b) What specific type of bonds are present in the molecule?
      c) What is the overall shape of the molecule?
      d) Is this a polar or a non-polar molecule overall?

  3. Construct a methane molecule (CH4).

  4. Now remove one H atom and replace it with a methyl group (CH3). You have formed ethane.
      a) Draw the structural formula for ethane.
      b) Why is ethane called a hydrocarbon?
      c) What family does this molecule belong to?

  5. Construct an ethene molecule (C2H4).
      a) What family does this molecule belong to?
      b) Is ethene saturated or unsaturated?
      c) Why?

  6. Construct a methanol molecule (CH3OH).

  7. Now remove one H atom from the C atom of methanol. Replace it with a methyl group. You have formed ethanol.
      a) Draw the structural formula for ethanol.
      b) What family does this molecule belong to?

  8. Split your ethanol and construct two separate methanol molecules. Remove the OH from one methanol and the H (from the OH group) of the other methanol. Simulate a chemical reaction by joining the two fragments through the oxygen atom.
      a) What family does this new molecule belong to?
      b) Draw the structural formula for this molecule.
      c) In the chemical reaction you just simulated, the H and OH which were removed unite. What do they form?

  9. Remake a methane molecule. Now remove two H atoms from C atom and attach one O atom (remember to make a double bond from the C to the O). You have made formaldehyde, a preservative for dissection specimens.
      a) Draw the structural formula for this molecule.
      b) What family does this molecule belong to?
      c) Is formaldehyde a polar or a non-polar molecule overall?

  10. Remove one H atom from formaldehyde and replace it with a methyl group.
      a) Draw the structural formula for the molecule created.
      b) What family does this molecule belong to?

  11. Remove the H atom from the central C atom (ie. not from the methyl group) and add on another methyl group. You should now have a molecule with 2 methyl groups called acetone.
      a) Draw the structural formula for this molecule.
      b) What family does this molecule belong to?

  12. Remake a methanol molecule. Remove two H atoms from the C atom (ie. not from the OH group) and replace them with one O atom (you will need a double bond).
      a) Draw the structural formula for this molecule.
      b) What family does this molecule belong to?

  13. Now remove the last H atom from the C atom (ie. not from the OH group) and add on a methyl group. You have produced vinegar or acetic acid.
      a) Draw the structural formula for this molecule.

  14. Construct the molecule CH3NH2.
      a) Draw the structural formula for this molecule.
      b) What family does this molecule belong to?

  15. Name any TWO functional groups or families that were not constructed in this lab.