Use the Nelson text, "Biology 11", pp. 494-499 to complete the blanks.

Recall that plants can be placed into two major divisions: _________________ plants and ________________ plants. According to Table 1, ______________ are non-vascular plants whereas _________, ________________, and ____________________ are vascular plants.

_____________________, the process by which plants synthesize their own ___________________, is the most important distinguishing feature of the plant kingdom. These carbohydrates supply both stored ___________ ____________ and _______________ blocks for cell growth and reproduction. They also provide _____________ for all other organisms.

Cells of all multicellular organisms are organized into ____________, tissue ____________, organs, and ____________ systems.


Plant cells divide by ________________ only in specific regions called ______________. The meristems at the __________ tips and _________ tips are called _____________ meristems. Meristems at locations other than the root and shoot tips form complete or incomplete _____________ of tissue within roots and stems. These are called ____________ meristems and they cause an increase in the _______________ of roots and stems. _______________ is another name for a lateral meristem. Cell division within the _______________ _______________ produces cells which will become new ____________ and ________________ tissue (label diagram of plant, Fig. 2, pg. 495).

Primary and Secondary Growth

_____________ growth includes all growth in the ____________ of roots and stems throughout the plant's entire life and all growth in the _________________ of roots and stems during the ____________ year of life. _________________ growth is the result of _______________ meristem activity throughout the rest of the plant's life (see Fig. 3, pg. 496).

Plant Tissues

Plant tissues are specialized for functions such as _______________, _________________, _______________, photosynthesis, and ___________________. There are ____________ major types of plant tissue - ____________ tissue, _____________ tissue, and ______________ tissue. Dermal tissue cells are found in the ________________ (the ______________ cell layer of a plant experiencing ____________ growth) and the _________________ (a _________________ covering that replaces the _______________ in plants showing extensive ________________ growth). Ground tissue cells make up all of the ____________ non_____________ regions in the plant. Vascular tissue cells are specialized for ________________ materials throughout the plant.

Dermal Tissue System

The outermost cell layer of the main plant body is the ________________. On parts of the shoot system, the _______________ produces an outer ___________, noncellular layer called the ____________ which protects against excessive ____________ loss and infection by _____________________. Epidermal tissue often contains _________ ___________ cells and leaf ___________ cells. During secondary growth in roots and stems, the epidermis is replaced by the ______________, another dermal tissue (ie. the bark of a tree).

Ground Tissue System

There are _________ types of ground tissues: _________________, _________________, and __________________. Parenchyma consists of living cells that make up the bulk of the primary _________ body. It is involved in _________________ and the storage of ______________, ________________, and water (see Fig. 2, pg. 499).

Collenchyma helps __________________ the plant and is specialized for supporting the plant's primary growth regions. Collenchyma cells have thick ______ ____________ that provide some flexibility. ____________ stalks contain lots of collenchyma tissue.

Sclerenchyma cells have a secondary (extra) ______ _________ that provides added __________ and rigidity to the cell. The mature cells are actually dead. The gritty texture of ____________ fruit is due to sclerenchyma cells.

Vascular Tissue System

Vascular tissue includes ____________ and ______________ , etc. Xylem is the main tissue for conducting _____________ and _________________. As shown in Fig. 3 on pg. 499, two main types of xylem cells are called __________________ and ______________.

_____________ tissue transports sugars and other _______________. Unlike mature xylem, which is _________, mature phloem is a __________ tissue. Phloem cells are joined together to form ____________ tubes forming pathways for transporting sugars and solutes (see Fig. 4, pg. 500).