Use the Nelson text, "Biology 11", pp. 294-295 to complete the blanks.


___________________ or ______________ infections as well as reactions to _____________________ chemicals can cause a variety of respiratory problems. ____________________ refers to a wide variety of ailments characterized by a _________________ of the air passages. It is characterized by an ____________________ of the mucous lining of the _________________ tubes. The excess production of ________________ leads to inflammation and tissue ___________________, a ___________________ of the air passages, and decreased ___________ movement through the _____________. The condition becomes more serious in the ____________________ which are not supported by rings of __________________ that help keep them open. Two conditions, ____________________ _______________ and _____________________, are associated with inflammation of the bronchioles. In both conditions, greater __________________ is required to _____________ than to inhale. This occurs because _________________ pressure is produced in the lungs and bronchioles during ___________________. During expiration, ____________________ pressure in the chest cavity compresses the ____________ and the ________________, decreasing the diameter of the bronchioles and increasing _____________________ to airflow. The imbalance between the amount of air __________________ the lungs and the amount of air __________________ the lungs must be met by increasing the exertion of ________________________.

Although all the causes of __________________ are not known, the condition is often associated with __________________. An allergic reaction initiates the ___________________ of the tissues and the tissues which line the walls of the ____________________ swell. Also, an allergic reaction causes ______________ of the muscles lining the bronchiole walls.


Emphysema is associated with long-term ____________________. It involves an increased _________________ to airflow through the bronchioles. Although air flows into the ________________ fairly easily, the decreased diameter of the ____________________ creates resistance to the movement of air out of the ____________. Air pressure builds up in the ____________ (emphysema means "over______________"). Unable to support the building pressure, the thin walls of the _______________ stretch and eventually ______________. The fact that there are fewer ________________ means there is less _________________ area for gas exchange which leads to decreased ___________________ levels. In the body's attempt to maintain ____________________, the breathing rate __________________ and exhalation becomes more laboured. The ____________________ system adjusts by increasing the _______________ rate.

Another problem is that adjoining ______________________ capillaries and _________________ are both destroyed. Although blood ___________________ prevents any major internal hemorrhaging, the tissue of the _____________ is replaced by ____________ tissue, the lungs are less able to ______________, and therefore they hold less air.

Lung Cancer

More Canadian men and women die from _____________ cancer than from any other form of cancer. There is uncontrolled _________________ of cells and the solid mass of cancer cells in the lungs greatly decreases the __________________ area for ____________________. Tumours may actually block __________________, reducing airflow to the lungs and potentially causing the lungs to __________________.