Use the Nelson text, "Biology 11", pp. 326-331 to complete the blanks and answer the questions.
The science of ___________________ organisms, called taxonomy, has two main purposes: to ___________________ organisms and to represent ___________________ among them. The Greek philosopher ___________________ proposed that all creatures could be arranged according to their ________________. ________________ and simple organisms occupy the lowest rung, while _______________, occupy the top rung. The dominance of humans over all living things was described as the __________ ________________, or "ladder of ____________".
Read "Classifying Organisms" on pg. 327. For each organism, complete the table below.
Our biological system of classification was developed by __________ _______________. His system was based on ______________ and ___________________ features and assumed that the more features organisms have in common, the _________________ their relationship.
Linnaeus was the first to use _______________ _________________ which assigns each organism a ____-part scientific name using Latin words. The first part of a scientific name is called the ____________; it's first letter is always ________________. The second part is called the _______________. Living organisms within a ______________ can only ________________ with members of their own species.
In our present classification system, there are ________________ main levels or ____________. List these in order, starting from the most general (largest group) to most specific (smallest group): ______________, _________________, ______________, _____________, ________________, ______________, ______________. Which level of classification always uses a small (non-capital) letter? _______________. Which organism is in the order Diptera? __________________. What kingdom are these organisms in? ____________________.
As new organisms were discovered with new features, a six-kingdom system of classification was devised. Print out this page and complete the table for the six Kingdoms on pg. 329.
Today, most scientists believe that organisms have _______________ over time. The history of the _______________ of organisms is called __________________. Relationships are often shown in a diagram called a _____________________ tree, where the tree starts from the most __________________ form and includes branchings that lead to all of its __________________ (Fig. 1, pg. 330). Which organisms evolved first: basidiomycetes or ascomycetes? ______________________; arthropoda or platyhelminthes? _____________________. Which organisms (in general) are at the bottom of the tree (implying all other organisms evolved from them)? ____________________.
Another system that possibly better reflects the evolutionary history of life uses a __________________-domain classification system. The main groups are: __________________, ______________________, ______________________. Which domain are humans in? ____________________. Which domain are heat-loving bacteria in? __________________________.
Many scientists use classification manuals to identify organisms. Usually, it involves the use of a _________________ key (Fig. 3, pg. 330).