The best way to study: Re-read your notes many times and practice drawing all structures, reactions, graphs. The points below are only a guideline. You should study your notes thoroughly and then try to answer all these questions but this list cannot cover everything. Be familiar with the labs/assignments/quizzes you have done. Also try the quizzes and games on zeroBio indicated in the "Metabolic Processes" section (check the title for each quiz or game for relevance).
Type of questions: Multiple choice, written answers (definitions, explanations), drawing structures, reactions, graphs, recognizing molecular models, etc. You can write answers (not structures) in point form but be specific.
Marks: 90-100 marks. You will have to work quickly and efficiently. If you don't know the answer to a question almost immediately, move on to the next question. Be aware of the mark value for each question and watch the time.
Major Topics on Test:
- Natural Philosophy
- Scientific Method
- Atoms, Molecules, and Chemical Bonds
- Biochemistry Assignment
- Organic Chemistry, Molecular vs. Structural Formulas
- Functional Groups
- Molecular Model of Functional Groups Lab
- Major Types of Chemical Rxns
- Chemical Rxns Worksheet
- Biologically Important Molecules
- Enzyme Lab
- Regulation of Enzymes
- State the six steps of the scientific method.
- Contrast the vitalist and mechanist points of view of nature.
- What is the difference between a dependent variable, an independent variable, and a controlled variable?
- What is the difference between atomic mass and atomic number?
- How many electrons can be accommodated (in total) in each of the first 4 energy levels?
- How many protons, neutrons, and electrons in: a) a neutral atom with atomic number 15? b) Mg2+?
- How is an ion different from an atom?
- What are isomers? What are isotopes? Give an example (ie. a pair of substances) for each.
- Distinguish between a non-polar covalent bond, a polar covalent bond, an ionic bond, and a hydrogen bond. Explain how a molecule which has a polar covalent bond(s) can be non-polar overall.
- How does the Bohr diagram of an atom differ from the Lewis diagram? Draw a Bohr and Lewis diagram for a neutral Nitrogen atom (atomic # = 7).
- Draw the Lewis diagrams for HCl, H2O, NH3, CO2, F2 and assign "deltas".
- Draw the structural formula for the compound: HO-CH2CH2OCH2CONH2, circle and name all functional groups.
- What is a hydrocarbon? What is a saturated hydrocarbon? Which major class of bio. imp. molecules often includes unsaturated carbon chains? How does unsaturation determine whether a substance is a solid or liquid?
- Draw a separate molecule containing each of the following functional groups and circle/name the functional group: amino, alcohol, carboxyl, ether, alkene, alkyne, aldehyde, ester, phosphate, amide, etc.
- Be able to identify the major family/functional group for molecular models on display during the test (each molecule will have ONE major functional group).
- Which of the following are monomers and which are polymers? If a polymer, tell what the monomers are: cellulose, glycogen, glucose, galactose, protein, amino acid.
- Draw the structural formula for: glucose, fructose, galactose, general amino acid, unsaturated fatty acid, glycerol.
- Draw structural formulas for a reaction that produces an ether + water. Circle the atoms that react and circle the ether linkage.
- Draw the condensation reaction between 2 generalized amino acids (with R groups). What type of linkage occurs between them? What is the reverse reaction called?
- Define an acid and a base and give examples of each. How does each affect pH? How could you test for an acid or base?
- Complete the following reactions:
a) KOH ---> ? b) HCl --->? c) HCl + NaOH ---> ? d) H2SO4 ---> ? e) Ca(OH)2 ---> ?
- Classify as neutral, weak acid, strong acid, weak base, or strong base: pH = 2, pH = 13, pH = 7, pH = 8.2, pH = 6.5
- What is a buffer?
- What are the four major biologically important molecules? Give a representative example of each. Be familiar with all structures studied in class. (Note: you do NOT have to know nucleic acids).
- How are cellulose, glycogen, chitin, and starch similar? How are they different?
- Distinguish between oxidation and reduction reactions? Draw a reaction for each.
- Distinguish between exergonic and endergonic reactions? Draw the energy vs. time graphs.
- Describe how an enzyme increases the rate of a chemical reaction.
- Describe and draw the "induced fit model" of enzyme action.
- Describe and draw the major methods of enzyme control/regulation.